ANSWER: Relative dating is used to determine the relative ages of geologic strata, artifacts, historical events, etc.
Seriation uses the assumption that once a tool was developed, its use would become more widespread.
Stratigraphy uses the assumption that higher layers or strata were laid down after lower layers.
Ice core sampling normally uses the assumption that the ring bands observed represents years.
One known example where this assumption was used is very misleading.
Ice cores showed the age of a military plane buried in the artic as thousands of years old.
Similarly, dendrochronology measures the tree rings in trees and assumes they represent years.
Climate chronology uses evidence of a climatic change, such as an ice age, as a benchmark for dating.
states, Before the 20th century, archaeologists and geologists were largely limited to the use of relative dating techniques.
Estimates of the absolute age of prehistoric and geological events and remains amounted to little more than inspired guesswork, as there was no scientific basis for testing such proposals.
With this background, it is strange that the standard geologic column that identifies the rock strata on the earth and assigns very old ages to those strata was developed by Sir Charles Lyell in 1830.
This was done 100 years before absolute dating methods were available.