LD CJ GIFT OF Felix Flflgel A KEY TO THE CLASSICAL PRONUNCIATION or Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names; IN WHICH THE WORDS ARE ACCENTED AND DIVIDED INTO SYLLABLES EXACTLY AS THEY OUGHT TO BE PRONOUNCED, ACCORDING TO RULES DRAWN FROM ANALOGY AND THE BEST USAGE. I could have wished it had been undertaken by a person of more learning and leisure than myself; but we often wait in vain for works of this kind, from those learned bodies which ought to produce them, and at last are obliged, for the best we can get, to the labours of some necessitous individual. But the English are accused not only of departing from the genuine sound of the Greek and Latin vowels, but of violating the quantity of these languages more than the people of any other nation in Europe. Tu, Tu, istic, inquam, vin' afferri noctuam, " Qua? nam nos jam nos defessi sumus." " It appears here," says Mr.
TO WHICH ARE ADDED, TERMINATi ONAL VOCABULARIES OF HEBREW, GREEK, AND LATIN PROPER NAMES, IN WHICH THE WORDS ARE ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR FINAL SYLLABLES, AND CLASSED ACCORDING TO THEIR ACCENTS ; By which the General Analogy of Pronunciation may be seen at one view, and the Accentuation of each word more easily remembered. Being long engaged in the instruction of youth, I felt the want of a work of this kind, and have supplied it in the best manner I am able. The author of the Essay upon the Harmony of Language gives us a detail of the particulars by which this accusation is proved : and this is so true a picture of the English pronunciation of Latin, that I shall quote it at length, as it may be of use to those who are obliged to learn this language without the aid of a teacher. The vulgar, generally the last to alter, either for the better or worse, still have a jingling proverb with this pronunciation, when they say, As old as Poules. in making use of it to imitate the cry of an owl "MEN. Forster, in his defence of the Greek accents, page 129, " that an owl's cry was tu, tu, to a Roman ear, as it is too, too, to an " English." Lambin, who was a Frenchman, observes on the passage^ * Alludit " ad noctuae vocem sen cantum, tu, tu, seu ton, *preceding word Abantias ; and so of the rest.
The proper names in Scripture have still a higher claim to our attention. in that precious repository of divine truth should be rendered as easy as possible to the reader, cannot be doubted : and the very frequent occasions of pro- nouncing Scripture proper names, in a country where reading the Scripture makes part of the reli- gious worship, seem to demand some work on this subject more perfect than any we have hitherto seen. XI languages, which is not done by any other nation in Europe, it is not easy to conceive; and as the colloquial communication of learned individuals of different nations so seldom happens, and is an object of so small importance when it does happen, it is not much to be regretted that when they meet they are scarcely intel- ligible to each other*. The professors of painting, statuary, and music, and those who admire their works readers of history, politics, poetry all who con- verse on subjects ever so little above the vulgar, have so frequent occasion to pronounce these proper names, that whatever tends to render this pronun- ciation easy must necessarily be acceptable to the Public. , 03, is a sound made in imitation of the bleat- ing of a sheep ; and quotes to this purpose this verse of an ancient writer called Cratinus : Is fatuus perinde ac ovis, b, be, dicens, iacedit. Agreeable to this rule, it is presumed that we formerly pronounced the apostle Paul nearer the original than at present. Poule'8, and sermons were preached at Poule'i INTRODUCTION. Babari, Chomari, Agactari, Iberi, Celtiberi, Doberi, Algeri, Palemeri, Monomeri, Hermanduri, Dioscuri, Banuri, Paesuri, Agacturi, Zimyri. Abari, Tochari, Acestari, Cavari, Calabri, Cantabri, Digeri, * Extremique hominum Morini, Rhenusqne bicornis. It is not only the learned professions that require this knowledge, but almost every one above the merely mechanical. * Monsieur Launcelot, the learned author of the Port-Royal Greek Grammar, in order to convey the sound of the long Greek vowel , tells us, it is a sound between the c and the , and that Eustathius, who lived towards the close of the twelfth century, says, that #? The sound of the e long may be perceived in the bleating of sheep, as Cratinus and Varro have handed down to us. Most nations in Europe, perhaps all but the English, pronounce audio and laudo, as if written owdio and lowdo ; the diphthong sounding like ou in loud. Polite scholars, indeed, are seldom at a loss for the pronunciation of words they so frequently meet with in the learned languages; but there are great numbers of respectable English scholars, who, having only a tincture of classical learning, are much at a loss for a knowledge of this part of it. E longum, ciijus sonus in ovium balatu sentitur, ut Cratinus et Varro tradiderunt. This is the sound of the same letters in the Latin tongue; not only in proper names derived from Greek, but in every other word where this diph- thong occurs. ( 134 ) Drugeri, Eleutheri, Crustumeri, Teneteri, Brueteri, Suelteri, l Yeveri, Veragri, Treviri, Ephori, Pastophori. Proper names from the Greek and Latin form so considerable a part of every cultivated living lan- guage, that a Dictionary seems to be imperfect with- out them. This pronunciation is exactly like that preserved by nurses and children among us to this day in bow wow. The Danes, unconquer'd offspring, march behind ; And Morini, the last of human kind, DRYDEN.
1 HE Critical Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language naturally suggested an idea of the present work. Aristophanes has handed down to us the pronunciation of the Greek diphthong a Z a Z by making it expressive of the barking of a dog. That so much labour should be bestowed upon an inverted arrangement of these words, when they had already been given in their common alphabetical order, may be matter of wonder to many persons, who will na- turally inquire into the utility of such an arrange- ment. lowed to follow their own pronunciation of Greek and Latin, as well as other nations, even though it should be confessed that it seems to depart more from what we can gather of the ancient pronunciation, than either the Italian, French, or German*. See Rule the 7th, prefixed to this Vocabulary, B AB AC AC Ab-de' ri-a(l) (4)(7) Ab-u-li' tes (1) ' Ac' e-la (24) Ab-de-ri'tes (1) j Ab-y-de'ni (6) Ac-e-ra' tus (27) Ab-de' rus (1) Ab-y-de'nus (6) A-cer' bas A-be' a-taa (7) ( 1) (5) A-by' di (6) Ac-e-ri'na (1) A-bel'la(7) A-by'dos(6) A-cer' rae (4) Ab-el-li' nus A-b'dus Ac-er-sec' o-mes A'bi-a (1) (4) (7) Ab'y-la(6) A'ces(7) A-ben'da (7) Ab'y-lon (6) A-ce'si-a (10) Ab'ga-rus Ab-ys-si'ni (1) Ac-e-si' nes ( I ) A' ! AC AD TEA 3 A-che' tus A-cra' tus Ad' a-mas A-chil'las A'cri-as (4) Ad-a-mas'tus A-chil' le-us Ac-ri-doph'a-gi (3) A-das' pi-i (4) Ach-il-le'a(7) A-cri'on (11) Ad'a-tha Ach-il-lei-ei/ ses Ac-ris-i-o'ne Ad-de-pha' gi-a Ach-il-le' is Ac-ris-i-o-ne' us Ad'du-a(7) A-chil'les Ac-ris-i-o-ni' a-des A-del' phi-us Ach-il-le'um A-cris'e-us (10) A-de' mon A-chi' vi (4) A-cri'tas (1) A'des, or Ha' des Ach-la-dae' us Ac-ro-a' thon Ad-gan-des' tri-us Ach-o-la'i (3) Ac-ro-ce-rau' ni-um Acl-her' bal Ac-ra-di'na (7) Ac-ro-co-rin' thus Ad-her' bas Ach-o-lo'e A'cron (1) Ad-i-an'te (S) Ach-ra-di' na Ac-ro-pa'tos A-di-at'o-rix Ac-i-cho' ri-us A-crop' o-lis Ad-i-man' tus Aoi-da' li-a (8) Ac'ro-ta Ad-me'ta (7) Ac-i-da' sa A-crot' a-tus Ad-i-me' te A-cil'i-a Ac-ro' tho-os Ad-me' tus Ac-i-lig' e-na (24) Ac' ta (7) A-do' ni-a A-cii'i-us Ac-tae'a (7) A-do'nis A-cir la (7) Ac-tae' on (4) Ad-ra-myt' ti-um A'cis Ac-tae'us (4) A-dra'na (7) (1) Ac' mon Ac'te (8) A-dra'num Ac-mon'i-des (4) Ac'ti-a(l O) A-dras' ta A-coe' tes Ac' tis A-dras' ti-a A-co' nas (4) Ac-tis' a-ues A-dras' tus A-con' tes Ac'ti-um (10) A' dri-a (23) A- cor/ te-us Ac' ti-us (10) A-dri-a' num A-con' ti-us (10) ! Albani, Cerbani, ^cani, Sicani, Tusicani, &c., and all words of this termination, except Choani and Sequani, or such as are derived from words terminating in anus, with :he penultimate short ; which see. Agabeni, Adiabeni, Saraceni, Iceni, Laodiceni, Cyziceni, Uceni, Chaldeni, Abjdeni, Comageni, Igeni, Quingeni, Ce- pheni, Tyrrheni, Rutheni, Labieni, Alieni, Cileni, Cicimeni, Alapeni, Hypopeni, Tibareni, Agareni, Rufreni, Caraseni, Volseni, Bateui, Cordueni. Slgyptini, Mamertini, Tricastini, Vestini, Faus- tini, Abrettini, Enguini, Inguini, Lanuvini. To these it may be answered, that the words of all languages seem more related to each other by their terminations than by their beginnings; that the Greek and Latin languages seem more particu- larly to be thus related ; and classing them accord- ing to their endings seemed to exhibit a new view of these languages, both curious and useful : for as a3 vi ADVERTISEMENT. For why the English should pay a compliment to the learned factum est ut tanta in pronunciando varietas extiteret ut pauci inter se in liter- arum sonis conseutiant. ;i-i (4) Ab-ys-sin'i-a (6) Ac-e-si' nus (1) Ab'i-la(4)(7) Ac-a-cal' lis (7) A-ce' si-us (10) A-bis'a-res (7) Ac-a-ce' si-um ( 10) A-ces' ta (7) A-bis'a-ris(7) Ak-a-se' zhe-um A-ces' tes Ab-i-son'tes (4) A-ca'ci-us (10) A-ces' ti-um (10X Ab-le'tes (1) A-ka f she-us A-ces-to-do' rus A-bob' ri-ca (4) Ac-a-de' mi-a (7) A-ces-tor' i-des A -bo' bus Ac-a-de' mus A-ce' tes A-boec'ri-tus (5) Ac-a-lan' drus *Ach-a-b/tos (12) Ab-o-la'ni(3) A-cal' le (8) A-cha/ a (7) A-bo'lus(7)(l) A-ca-mar' chis (7) A-chaj' i (3) Ab-on-i -tei' chos (5) Ac' a- mas (7) A-cha/ i-um Ab~o-ra'ca (1) (7) A-camp'sis (7) A^chaem' e-nes Ab-o-rig'i-nes (4) A-cau'tha (7) Ach-ae-me' ni-a A-bor'ras(7) A -can' thus (7) Ach-ae-men' i-des Ab-ra-da' tas ' Ac'a-ra (7) A-chae' us Ab-ra-da' tes A-ca'ri-a (7) A-cha'i-a(7) A-bren' ti-us (10) Ac-ar-na' ni-a (7) Ach' a-ra (7) A-broc' o-mas A-car'nas (7) Ach-a-ren' ses Ab-rod-i-ae' tus (4) A-cas' ta (7) i A-char' naa (4) A-bro' ni-us (4) A-cas'tus(7) A-cha' tes A-bron'y-cus (6) Ac-a-than' tus (7) | Ach-e-lo' i-des (4) Ab'ro-ta(7) Ac' ci-a (10) (7) Ach-e-lo' ri-um A-brot' o-num | Akf she-a Ach-e-lo' us A-bryp' o-lis (6) Ac'ci-la (7) A-cher'dus Ab-se' us Ac' ci-us (10) i A-cher' i-mi (3) (4) Ab*sin' thi-i (4) Ak' she-us \ Ach' e-ron Ab' so-rus Ac'cu-a (7) Ach-e-ron' ti-a (10) Ab-syr' tos (6) A'ce(8) Ach-e-ru' si-a (11) Ab syr'tus (6) Ac-e-di'ci (3) (24) Ach-e-ru' si-as (11) * Achabytos. Ac' tor A-dri-at'i-cum A-con-to-bi/ ius Ac- tor' i-des A-dri-an-oj/ o-lis A-co' ris Ac-to' ris A-dri-a' nus A' era A-cu' phis A' dri-an (Eng.) A'crae A-cu-si-la' us Ad-ri-me'tum A-crse' a (7) i A-cu' ti-cus, M. ph'ni-a (7) ; A' da (7) A-dyr-ma-chi'dae Ac-ra-gal-li'dae (4) A-da/us *^'a(7) Ac' ra-gas (7) ' Ad-a-man-tae' a (7) jf E-a-ce'a * JEa. their accent and quantity depend so much on their termination, such an arrangement appeared to give an easier and more comprehensive idea of their pro- nunciation than the common classification by their initial syllables. Quod quidem mirnm non esset, si indocti tantum a doctis in eo, ac non ipsi etiam alioqui eruditi inter se magna contentions dissi- derent. CA, in this and all the subsequent words, have the sound of k, Thus Achabytos, Achcea, Achates, 5fc. The diphthong is merely ocular, for the a has no share in the sound, though it appears in the type. ZE-an-te' um ^E-gi' a-le ^1-gi-a Me-us (22) ^-gyp'ti-i (4) (10). ZE-an'ti-des ^E-gi-a'li-a (22) (4) JE-gyp' tus ji E-an' tis ^E-gi'a-lus IE! a-tus ^E-gi'la M' li-an (Eng) JEch-mac'o-ras ^E-gil'i-a #yii-us and IE! ZE-dep' sum ^Eg-i-mo'rus ^-mil' i-a JE-des' sa ^-gi'na JB)-mil-i-a'nus ^-dic' u-la . This end was so desirable as to in- duce me to spare no pains, however dry and dis- gusting, to promote it ; and if the method I have taken has failed, my labour will not be entirely lost if it convinces future prosodists that it is not worthy of their attention. PAGE THE pronunciation of Greek and Latin not so difficult as that of our own language * . ix The ancient pronunciation of Greek and Latin, a subject of great controversy among the learned ibid. Indeed as we pronounce the a, there is no middle sound between that letter and e, and therefore we have adopted the last vowel, and relinquished the first. ZEg-i-ne' ta ^E-mil' i-us Jvdi' les (8) ^Eg-i-ne'tes . mon ^E'don j3E-gi' pan JEm' o-na JE'du-i, or Hed'u-i JE-gi'ra . ZE-el' lo ^E-gir-o-es' sa JE- mon' i-des ^-e' ta *^E' gis 2ES mus j E-e'ti-as (10) j E-gis' thus JEt-my Yi-a JE'ga ^E-gi' turn ^-myl-i-a' nus ^E-ge' as ^'gi-um -^E-myl'i-i (4) j E'gae(5) Mfk j E-myl'i-us E-gae' as JEg'les ^E-nu'ri-a ^-gae' on ^E^-le' tes ^E-ne' a ./E-gae' um ^Eg'lo-ge JE-ne' a-des ^E-gae' us i E-gob' o-lus ^E-ne'a-dse ^E-ga' le-os JEi-goc f e-ros ^E ne'as JE-ga' le-um j E'gon JE-ne'i-a ^E'gan ^E'gos pot'a-mos ^E-ne'is ^'gas (5) ^Eg-o-sa' gas ^-ne x i-des (4) ^E-ga' tes j E-gos' the-na ./E-nes-i-de' mus in where and then ; the middle or mixt sound then would be like o in father, which was probably the sound they gave to this diphthong. This diphthong, though long in Greek and Latin, is in English pro- nunciation either long or short, according to the accent or position of it. K 2 ( 132 ) ALI ELI ILI OLI ULI YLI Accent the Antepenultimate. The English, however faulty in their pronunciation of Greek and Latin, pronounce them, like other European nations, according to the analogy of their own language x Sufficient vestiges remain to prove that the foreign pronun- ciation of the Greek and Latin letters is nearer to the ancient than the English (Note) ibid. This, among other reasons, makes it probable that the Greeks and Romans pronounced the a as we do in water, and the e as \ve hear it U 2 4 JEG JEG JEN JE-ac'i-das -^E-ge' le-on JE'gus -ZE-ac' i-des j? Thus, if it immediately precedes the accent, as in JEgeus, or with the accent on it, be- fore a single consonant, in a word of two syllables, it is long, as in JEgis; before two consonants it is short, as in JEgles ; or before one only, if the accent be on the antepenultimate, as ASropus. Abali, Vandali, Acephali, Cynocephali, Macrocephali, At- tali, Alontegeceli, Garoceli, Monosceli, Igiigili, JEquicoli, Carseoli, Puteoli, Corioli, Ozoli, Atabuli, Graeculi, Pediculi, Siculi, Puticuli, Anculi, Barduli, Varduli, Turduli, Foruli, Gaetuli, Bastuli, Rutuli, Massesyli, Dactyli.